Nicolas Boutry

Bridging human concepts and computer vision for explainable face verification

Abstract With Artificial Intelligence (AI) influencing the decision-making process of sensitive applications such as Face Verification, it is fundamental to ensure the transparency, fairness, and accountability of decisions. Although Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) techniques exist to clarify AI decisions, it is equally important to provide interpretability of these decisions to humans. In this paper, we present an approach to combine computer and human vision to increase the explanation’s interpretability of a face verification algorithm.

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Discrete Morse functions and watersheds

By Gilles Bertrand, Nicolas Boutry, Laurent Najman


In Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision

Abstract Any watershed, when defined on a stack on a normal pseudomanifold of dimension d, is a pure (d-1)-subcomplex that satisfies a drop-of-water principle. In this paper, we introduce Morse stacks, a class of functions that are equivalent to discrete Morse functions. We show that the watershed of a Morse stack on a normal pseudomanifold is uniquely defined, and can be obtained with a linear-time algorithm relying on a sequence of collapses.

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Introducing PC n-manifolds and P-well-composedness in partially ordered sets

By Nicolas Boutry


In Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision

Abstract In discrete topology, discrete surfaces are well-known for their strong topological and regularity properties. Their definition is recursive, and checking if a poset is a discrete surface is tractable. Their applications are numerous: when domain unicoherence is ensured, they lead access to the tree of shapes, and then to filtering in the shape space (shapings); they also lead to Laplacian zero-crossing extraction, to brain tumor segmentation, and many other applications related to mathematical morphology.

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Structural and spectral analysis of dynamic graphs for attack detection

By Majed Jaber, Nicolas Boutry, Pierre Parrend


In Rencontre des jeunes chercheurs en inteligence artificielle (RJCIA-2023)

Abstract At this time, cyberattacks represent a constant threat. Many approaches exist for detecting suspicious behaviors, but very few of them seem to benefit from the huge potential of mathematical approaches like spectral graph analysis, known to be able to extract topological features of a graph using its Laplacian spectrum. For this reason, we consider our network as a dynamic graph composed of nodes (representing the devices) and of edges (representing the requests), and we compute its Laplacian spectrum across time.

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Towards attack detection in traffic data based on spectral graph analysis (best student presentation)

Abstract Nowadays, cyberattacks have become a significant concern for individuals, organizations, and governments. These attacks can take many forms, and the consequences can be severe. In order to protect ourselves from these threats, it is essential to employ a range of different strategies and techniques like detection of patterns, classification of system behaviors against previously known attacks, and anomaly detection techniques. This way, we can identify unknown forms of attacks. Few of these existing techniques seem to fully utilize the potential of mathematical approaches such as spectral graph analysis.

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Gradients intégrés renforcés

Abstract Les visualisations fournies par les techniques d’Intelligence Artificielle Explicable xAI) pour expliquer les réseaux de neurones convolutionnels (CNN’s) sont parfois difficile á interpréter. La richesse des motifs d’une image qui sont fournis en entrées (les pix l d’une image) entraîne des corrélations complexes entre les classes. Les techniques basées sur les gradients, telles que les gradients intégrés, mettent en évidence l’import nce de ces caractéristiques. Cependant, lorsqu’on les visualise sous forme d’images, on peut e retrouver avec un bruit excessif et donc une difficulté á interpréter les explic tions fournies.

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Topology-aware method to segment 3D plan tissue images

By Minh Ôn Vũ Ngọc, Nicolas Boutry, Jonathan Fabrizio


In 36th conference on neural information processing systems, AI for science workshop

Abstract The study of genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying tissue morphogenesis has received a lot of attention in biology. Especially, accurate segmentation of tissues into individual cells plays an important role for quantitative analyzing the development of the growing organs. However, instance cell segmentation is still a challenging task due to the quality of the image and the fine-scale structure. Any small leakage in the boundary prediction can merge different cells together, thereby damaging the global structure of the image.

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Some equivalence relation between persistent homology and morphological dynamics

By Nicolas Boutry, Laurent Najman, Thierry Géraud


In Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision

Abstract In Mathematical Morphology (MM), connected filters based on dynamics are used to filter the extrema of an image. Similarly, persistence is a concept coming from Persistent Homology (PH) and Morse Theory (MT) that represents the stability of the extrema of a Morse function. Since these two concepts seem to be closely related, in this paper we examine their relationship, and we prove that they are equal on n-D Morse functions, n\geq 1.

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Local intensity order transformation for robust curvilinear object segmentation

By Tianyi Shi, Nicolas Boutry, Yongchao Xu, Thierry Géraud


In IEEE Transactions on Image Processing

Abstract Segmentation of curvilinear structures is important in many applications, such as retinal blood vessel segmentation for early detection of vessel diseases and pavement crack segmentation for road condition evaluation and maintenance. Currently, deep learning-based methods have achieved impressive performance on these tasks. Yet, most of them mainly focus on finding powerful deep architectures but ignore capturing the inherent curvilinear structure feature (e.g., the curvilinear structure is darker than the context) for a more robust representation.

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QU-BraTS: MICCAI BraTS 2020 challenge on quantifying uncertainty in brain tumor segmentation — Analysis of ranking scores and benchmarking results

By Raghav Mehta, Angelos Filos, Ujjwal Baid, Chiharu Sako, Richard McKinley, Michael Rebsamen, Katrin Dätwyler, Raphael Meier, Piotr Radojewski, Gowtham Krishnan Murugesan, Sahil Nalawade, Chandan Ganesh, Ben Wagner, Fang F. Yu, Baowei Fei, Ananth J. Madhuranthakam, Joseph A. Maldjian, Laura Daza, Catalina Gómez, Pablo Arbeláez, Chengliang Dai, Shuo Wang, Hadrien Reynaud, Yuanhan Mo, Elsa Angelini, Yike Guo, Wenjia Bai, Subhashis Banerjee, Linmin Pei, Murat AK, Sarahi Rosas-González, Ilyess Zemmoura, Clovis Tauber, Minh Hoang Vu, Tufve Nyholm, Tommy Löfstedt, Laura Mora Ballestar, Veronica Vilaplana, Hugh McHugh, Gonzalo Maso Talou, Alan Wang, Jay Patel, Ken Chang, Katharina Hoebel, Mishka Gidwani, Nishanth Arun, Sharut Gupta, Mehak Aggarwal, Praveer Singh, Elizabeth R. Gerstner, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Nicolas Boutry, Alexis Huard, Lasitha Vidyaratne, Md Monibor Rahman, Khan M. Iftekharuddin, Joseph Chazalon, Élodie Puybareau, Guillaume Tochon, Jun Ma, Mariano Cabezas, Xavier Llado, Arnau Oliver, Liliana Valencia, Sergi Valverde, Mehdi Amian, Mohammadreza Soltaninejad, Andriy Myronenko, Ali Hatamizadeh, Xue Feng, Quan Dou, Nicholas Tustison, Craig Meyer, Nisarg A. Shah, Sanjay Talbar, Marc-André Weber, Abhishek Mahajan, Andras Jakab, Roland Wiest, Hassan M. Fathallah-Shaykh, Arash Nazeri, Mikhail Milchenko, Daniel Marcus, Aikaterini Kotrotsou, Rivka Colen, John Freymann, Justin Kirby, Christos Davatzikos, Bjoern Menze, Spyridon Bakas, Yarin Gal, Tal Arbel


In Journal of Machine Learning for Biomedical Imaging (MELBA)

Abstract Deep learning (DL) models have provided state-of-the-art performance in various medical imaging benchmarking challenges, including the Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) challenges. However, the task of focal pathology multi-compartment segmentation (e.g., tumor and lesion sub-regions) is particularly challenging, and potential errors hinder translating DL models into clinical workflows. Quantifying the reliability of DL model predictions in the form of uncertainties could enable clinical review of the most uncertain regions, thereby building trust and paving the way toward clinical translation.

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